As photographers – or at least those interested in photography, one of our top “focus points” is on the equipment that we use to capture the world in front of us. From amateur to professional, using the right camera system for us is what helps us to achieve our full potential behind the lens.
There is not a single camera system that is best for all of us. Our needs are different. Our priorities are all very unique, just like our preferences, experiences and lifestyles. The right camera is very different for all of us.
In my view, the best camera system is whatever one that you feel the most comfortable using. After all, virtually every major camera manufacturer produces high-quality equipment capable of recording stunning images on [digital] film. Nikon, Canon, Sony, Panasonic, Fuji, Olympus – for the most part, it just doesn’t matter. They all make wonderful equipment.
Again, for the most part, but there are exceptions. For example, some manufacturers produce heavier and bulkier cameras than others. Depending on your needs, you might find some camera systems are designed better for your specific photography preferences and that is what this post is all about.
Remember: What you are reading is my opinion built over a number of years working with cameras. As always, your mileage may vary.
How to choose a camera system
The worst way to choose a camera system is by looking at what everybody else is using. Remember, their needs may not match yours, and a LOT of people aren’t truly using the capabilities within their cameras that they paid good money to buy – sometimes because their photo situations don’t call for them, but most of the time, they just don’t know how.
Instead, ask yourself a few questions about the style of photography that you intend to shoot, then make a decision that maximizes your dollar spent. Resist the temptation to over buy.
- Are you okay with switching lenses, or would you rather work with a built-in lens?
- What type of photography do you enjoy the most? For example:
- Macro and nature
- Your kids / dogs / family
- Sports or other fast action
- How much weight are you okay carrying around with you?
- How much money are you looking to spend?
All of these questions (and probably a few more) can help you make the best decision possible.
Oh, a quick note about “formats”: Different types of camera “formats” exist. For example, the digital camera is by far the most popular camera format today because digital cameras are generally cheap enough to afford and they eliminate the time and expense of messing with film. However, 35mm and medium format film cameras exist and are still in use today, especially among “old-school” photographers, magazines or other studio services that need maximum quality out of every shot.
For the purposes of this article, we will examine digital cameras because they are the most common camera in use today. Digital cameras come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some digital cameras are SLRs (lenses can be changed but are also bigger in size) while others are point-and-shoot (built-in lenses that are typically zoomable, but much smaller in size). Instead of using film, digital cameras record images on sensors, and these sensors also come in a variety of sizes.
Full frame sensors mimic the traditional 35mm film size. Crop sensors are smaller sensor units than the full frame option but are often cheaper to buy and manufacturer. A detailed look at sensor sizes is well beyond the scope of this post but refer to this well-written GizMag article on sensor sizes for more information.
Examining photographic scenarios
Choosing the right camera system for you depends a lot on how you intend to use your equipment. Let’s take a look at several scenarios of photography and discuss some of the options that are available. This should give you a better idea of your options and the direction that you may wish to head.
Scenario #1: You travel and need to bring your equipment everywhere you go
To most travelers, weight is critically important. Consider a mirrorless digital camera to help reduce the weight and overall bulk of your camera system. Most camera manufacturers offer mirrorless options, like the Sony A6000, Canon EOS M3, Nikon 1 and Panasonic Lumix series.
Mirrorless cameras like the Canon EOS M3 are still fully capable DSLRs with the same sensors, but lack a mirror inside the camera and a traditional through-the-lens viewfinder. Instead, these cameras typically use electronic viewfinders and/or an LCD screen on the back of the camera that displays the “live” scene as it would look on a traditional mirrored camera.
The resulting photograph is just as high quality as a mirrored equivalent, but the lack of a mirror inside the camera makes these camera bodies both smaller and lighter, reducing the equipment footprint substantially. I recently switched from Nikon over to Sony’s mirrorless camera lineup to reduce the footprint of my photo equipment and generally love the new setup. The micro 4/3rds camera system is even smaller than mirrorless cameras, but also contain smaller sensors. In general, the larger the sensor, the better the image quality – especially in low light.
Of course, there are mirrored cameras that are small and lightweight, like point-and-shoot cameras with built-in lenses, but they may not offer the flexibility and image quality that you are looking for. Instead, DSLRs like the Nikon D3300 might be a good compromise between features and overall size of the camera, but remember that your lenses will contribute to your photo footprint.
Scenario #2: You shoot professionally at weddings or other important celebrations
Professional photography situations require getting it right the first time, often under adverse conditions (weather, stress, tempo, etc). You need a dependable and durable camera system that will keep up with you at every turn. While most cameras are capable of producing high-quality imagery, some are more durable than others.
A few quick considerations when the pressure is on to get the best photos possible: What if you get caught in rain – is your camera weather-sealed? Can you easily see the camera’s LCD screen in sunlight? Will the camera allow you to zoom into photos straight on the LCD to inspect sharpness and image quality? Does the camera system support external flash units that can fire in unison when the shutter is snapped?
In this scenario, I wouldn’t worry as much about the manufacturer as much as I would the camera’s individual performance characteristics. Mid-range megapixels (between 16 and 24MP) is typical for weddings, but low light performance might be more critical than, say, whether the manufacturer’s wide angle lens option starts at 12mm instead of 10mm. Often, lighting at weddings is dark, requiring cameras with larger sensors (ie: full frame) to capture more light during each exposure.
Tip: When photographing weddings, low light performance is often critical!
All major camera manufacturers offer full frame digital cameras, like the Nikon D800, Canon 5D and Sony A7r. While full frame digital cameras tend to be more expensive than their crop sensor cousins, the larger sensor delivers better low light performance and maximizes image quality.
Remember that as a professional wedding photographer, you aren’t just walking around taking pictures (okay, maybe your assistant photographer is doing that). Rather, you are setting up and staging photographs. At times, natural lighting will be tough. Focal distance might be compact. Shadows may be dark while highlights bright. Executing your vision requires near expert-level knowledge of whatever camera system you’re using.
Scenario #3: You want a camera to capture those memorable family moments
You want to be your family’s photographer! While a $5,000 Nikon D4 probably isn’t required to be your family’s official photographer, a cheap camera might not be able to keep up with playing kids or running dogs, either.
As far as I’m concerned, family photography is one step away from a full-blown sports photojournalism. In most families, things are happening – especially during those times when photos are being taken. The kids are white water rafting or playing baseball. Your two-year-old is tearing into a birthday gift amid an explosion of wrapping paper. Your dogs are playing in the dog park.
Whatever the case, chances are people will be moving quickly, and your camera will need to keep up with them, not only in its ability to quickly calculate exposure but also in its focus speed. The last thing you want are blurry kids. Slow cameras WILL miss some of these critical shots.
Tip: Family photography requires fast focusing and focus tracking
Look for cameras that focus quickly and, more importantly, track focus. For example, many cameras on the market – like the Sony A6000 – can track moving faces throughout a scene to keep focus where it matters most. Face recognition is becoming common among today’s digital cameras, and we don’t have to spend a lot of money to get it.
Scenario #4: You want to make a professional documentary with video
The inclusion of video adds an additional element to consider in your camera system. While nearly all digital cameras can record video, not all record at the same quality, and some cameras offer better audio capabilities than others. Audio is very, very important when taking professional, high-quality video!
This means cameras like the Sony A6000 may not be the best choice due to its inability to accept an audio input (ie: an external microphone), while other cameras like the Sony A7s or Canon 5D do. Also, battery life could be a concern with shooting longer video segments, so pay attention to how fast the camera burns through batteries. In studio applications, you may find that plugging your camera directly into A/C power is possible – depending on the camera.
Also, cheaper cameras can overheat when recording continuous video, requiring the camera to be turned off for several minutes to allow it to cool. This can literally destroy your production.
Video quality will be different among digital cameras, so pay attention to the camera’s video recording capabilities, like 1080 vs. 720, or 24fps (frames per second) vs. 60fps vs. something higher. If you want slow motion video, look for cameras capable of capturing video at least at 120fps. In my opinion, the Sony A7S II is one of the best mid-range video cameras on the market, but it also isn’t cheap (around $3k new).
The Nikon D7100 is an impressive low-budget performer in the video category, capable of producing 1080i video at 60p (60 frames per second).
Dedicated video cameras, like the Canon XA-30, may be more desirable depending on whether you’d like to reuse the camera for traditional still photography. These cameras are generally more ergonomically designed for video applications rather than both photo and video and are typically equipped with large LCD screens, XLR audio jacks, wide dynamic range, dual memory card slots and other features that videographers need. If video is all you’ll be doing with the camera, consider a dedicated video camera instead of a DSLR with video capabilities.
Scenario #5: You just want a basic, “bum-around” camera for anything
If all you are looking for is a basic camera to take a variety of pictures with, then your demands on the camera’s features will probably be quite a bit less. Get something like the Sony A6000, Nikon D3300 or Canon Rebel T5, which are all DSLRs in the $500 price range and offer very good image and video quality for the money. Lens kits are generally available, too, for these cameras (remember, DSLRs accept detachable lenses – they aren’t built-in).
If you want a pocket-sized camera, consider the Sony RX100. It is one of the best point-and-shoot cameras on the market – but sits at a higher price point. For cheaper options, the Canon PowerShot GX-9 is an excellent choice if you don’t mind the lack of a viewfinder. If you need a viewfinder (like me!), consider the Fujifilm X-30 instead.
The camera system that I use, and why
No discussion about camera systems is complete without a quick look at what I use.
I recently sold my Nikon camera system and bought into the Sony Alpha mirrorless line of photo tools. Sony’s Alpha camera system offers photographers a fairly inexpensive and lightweight way to capture our world’s most amazing natural (and sometimes, unnatural!) wonders.
Here is what our Sony Alpha camera system looks like:
- Sony Alpha A6000
- Rokinon 8mm UMC fisheye II
- Sony 18-105 f/4 OSS
- Nikon 55mm f/2.8 AIS (MF) with Fotga adaptor
I switched to the Sony Alpha camera system to downsize my photography profile and to lighten my load a little bit. I loved my Nikon equipment, detailed below, but more traditional digital SLR cameras available through Nikon and Canon are generally larger than their mirrorless counterparts. The mirror inside the camera takes up room, after all. Remove the mirror, downsize the profile of the camera, and you have a perfect form factor to travel and backpack with.
The majority of the photos that you see on this web site previous to (and including) our Tanque Verde Falls hike were taken with the following [sold] Nikon-based camera system:
- Nikon D7000 (Nikon D70 as backup)
- Tokina 12-24 f/4 F-Mount
- Nikon 18-200 VR (replaced the sold 18-70)
- Nikon 50mm f/1.4
- Nikon 105mm f/2.8 micro
- Nikon 80-200 f/2.8
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